Habitat & Species
Aquatic habitat and species in the Peace sub-basin are experiencing moderate change. Less healthy fish and mass fish die-offs have been observed by Indigenous communities in the upper and lower Peace. Populations of some fish species are observed to be in decline or locally extirpated, although healthy populations persist in large rivers, protected areas and the Rocky Mountain foothills. Scientific studies suggest that riparian areas are largely intact in the lower Peace and tributaries, and are highly degraded in the agricultural areas of the upper Peace and Smoky-Wapiti watersheds.
The following table summarizes the availability of information for each Habitat and Species indicator.
Indigenous Knowledge Information and Data
Indigenous Knowledge Availability1
Science Information and Data
Science Data Availability2
Oral histories and local observations of fish abundance, timing and distribution, species diversity and fish health condition.
Many observations from several locations.
Fish (including salmon, suckers, pickerels, burbot) abundance, timing and distribution, species diversity and fish health condition/
Data on fish populations and health available.
Oral histories and stories of wetland and forest (and other habitat / land use)
Some observations from few locations.
Number, location and total area of wetlands. Species diversity in wetlands where available.
Mapping available, limited information on changes in wetland cover.
Local observations and oral histories of riparian forests
No information found.
Number, location, total area of riparian forests areas. Species diversity of riparian forests where available.
1 Qualifiers for the availability of local and Indigenous Knowledge observations in publicly available sources: Limited = 1-2 observations; Some = 3-4 observations; Many = 5 or more observations
2 Qualifiers for the availability of science data in publicly available sources: Low = Individual studies or locations; Many = Network of monitoring stations across the basin
Declines in fish populations and health condition have been observed by Indigenous communities and scientists in some areas in the Peace sub-basin. Healthy populations persist in large rivers, protected areas and the Rocky Mountain foothills.
Wetland Mapping for the Peace Sub-basin as part of a published Canadian Wetland Inventory that still requires validation. 
The highest riparian disturbance was in upper Peace and the Smoky-Wapiti sub-basin, where agricultural land development has degraded riparian forests. Agricultural land has been concentrated in the riparian zones of these two sub-basins.
Health & Wellbeing